For those who had missed the extra class on crustal movements.

I would like to remind all students to study carefully and make use of the sources given in the exam. Some of the diagrams or pictures given in the paper are to help you write out your answers - make use of the words in the figures. Look at the picture below which shows the volcanic eruption of Mt Etna in 1983.

(ii) Identify the main hazard from the volcanic eruption which threatened:
A. Rocca and Ragalna,
B. Nicolosi

Look at the picture carefully - Rocca and Ragalna are located at the foot of the volcano and are along the path of the "present lava flow". Thus they face the threat of the lava flow.

As for Nicolosi, though it is away from the path of the lava flow, you can see the phrase "'ash fall from volcano cloud' written above the name of the settlement. Thus they are threatened by the ash fall. Most of the time, the answers can be found on the picture itself like this one here. Examine the source given and you earn the marks - which is something all of you can achieve if you make the effort to.

(iii) Describe the possible impacts of the volcanic activity shown by the figure on the people who lived close to Mount Etna.

specific health issues;
loss of possessions/homes/cars;
need to evacuate area;
damage to workplaces/unable to earn a living;
loss of agricultural produce/damage to farmland;
economic implications of rebuilding etc

(iv) Describe what can be done to protect people from volcanic eruptions.

I am sure all of you would have seen the words "diversion canal" " re-directed lava flow" on the picture- this will help you to include this as one of your answers - redirecting lava flow /by digging diversion canals;

Other points will include:
monitoring/warning population;
halting advance by dropping concrete slabs into flow;
spraying water onto flow
education re procedures/drills etc.

I would also like to highlight to all of you the second picture:

The 2nd picture shows the lava flow of the volcanic eruptions of Mt Etna in the year 1923 and 1983.

Always remember - there must be a reason why certain datas are included. E.g. in this picture, pay attention of the direction of the lava flows - the compass points are given. You would also note that the spot heights are also given in the legend.

The development of minor craters (secondary cones) on the southern and south-eastern side of the volcano would also indicate that this is a composite volcano. Refer to the map of the composite volcano given in paper 1 of 2005 Nov Paper 1 which was also given as a source for paper 2 in the 2006 June paper. If you are given the compass points on the map - you are expected to make use of it. E.g. state the location of the secondary cone.

Question for this picture: Use evidence from the Figure only to compare the lava flows of 1923 and 1983.
Thus your answer must include datas from the map such as the direction of the flows and the altitude which the flow started from.
the 1983 lava flow was more extensive;
1983 lava flow to S/SW whereas 1923 to N/NE;
1983 flow from higher point; 3340 metres, 1923 from 2153 metres

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