Paper made from rocks (limestone)

Pretty amazed by a documentary on TV - in an effort to protect the forest, an innovative way of making paper from rocks had been developed in China.

The new Rich Mineral Paper (RMP) is made from mainly mineral rocks containing variants of calcium carbonate, such as calcite, marble and limestone, which are easily found in China.

RMP is eco-friendly and does not involve pollution of water, toxic gases or waste products in its production process. Unlike wood pulp paper, RMP is made from stone. Grinding minerals into powder and dissolving the powder into non-poisonous organic macromolecular compounds, the production process does not need water, strong acids, strong bases, bleaching agents nor other organic chlorines. This means it does not produce waste. In production, it will also reduce per-unit energy consumption to two thirds of traditional techniques.

RMP is biodegradable and easily recycled. The paper degrade and cracks like eggshell when exposed to direct sunlight for six months or more and will turn into inorganic powder within a year of being buried.

RMP looks like conventional paper but it is more pliable and tougher, therefore more durable, and is waterproof. When used for writing, it will help resist water damage. When used in print work, it provides clearer imprints and pictures. It can be used to replace plastics for grocery bags, tablecloths and raincoats.

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Water self-sufficiency in Singapore

Water self-sufficiency, the Singapore way 4:29 mins

At the Water Conversation session at this year's Singapore International Water Week, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong talk about how Singapore can be self-sufficient in her water supply. Recycled water (NEWater) and desalinated water will account for 80% of Singapore's water supply in 2061, with the remaining 20% coming from water catchment areas.

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Two more new reservoirs in Singapore

Remember what I told the class about the damming of Sungei Serangoon (the river near our school)? It is finally completed! However, the water from the Serangoon reservoir is still undergoing desalting process, and will only be fit for consumption by the end of this year.

Together with the damming of Sungei Punggol, two more reservoirs are created bringing a total of 17 reservoirs in Singapore now, increasing our total water catchment areas from half to two-thirds of Singapore.

This will help Singapore attained self-sufficiency in water supply - a topic which you will be studying in Sec 2.

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