Earthquake and tsunami in Sulawesi, Indonesia

A 7.5 Earthquake struck the Indonesian island of Sulawesi followed by a tsunami on 28 Sept 2018.

What are the factors which led to the city of Palu experiencing the greatest damage and loss of lives?
Where are the areas affected?
Why do Indonesia experience frequent earthquakes?
What have been done to mitigate the impacts of earthquake?
Who are the ones affected by the earthquake?
How does the people respond to the earthquake to mitigate the impacts of earthquake?
How was the tsunamis formed? (this tsunamis which hit Palu was unique as it was not an offshore earthquake)

Strong aftershocks have continued to hit Sulawesi, where the major quake and tsunami killed at least 408 people and injured 500.

Dozens remain missing, some thought to be trapped in the debris of collapsed buildings in the city of Palu.

What are the short term responses carried out to save more lives now?

Update - death toll rose more than 1300 as @ 3 Oct 2018. Read on how short-term responses were carried out.

Mount Soputan erupted on 3 Oct - adding on to the woes of the people who have yet to recover from the impact of the earthquake and tsunami which struck on 28 Sept.

Another useful update on what caused the tsunami which affected Palu.
Unlike most tsunamis, the displacement of water is mainly due to the underwater landslides triggered by the earthquake from "strike-slip" fault (transform fault), where tectonic plates move sideways. The force was intensified as the waves moved landwards through a narrow bay into Palu.

Read more at 

Look at the impacts of the earthquake and tsunamis as well as the short-term responses in the video below

Limitations of short-term responses 
1. local government did not allow foreign aid and there is a delay in rendering help to search and rescue for trapped victims.
2. looting occurred  which hampered the distribution of food, water and medical supply in the affected areas.

Look at the video below to see the impact of soil liquefaction in aggravating the extent of damage by the earthquake.

More than 82,000 people were displaced in the worst-hit city of Palu, 1,500km northeast of the capital, Jakarta, and 67,000 homes destroyed or damaged. 

According to Wikipedia, the earthquake resulted in 2,256 dead, 1,075 missing and 70,821 evacuated.

Another shallow 6.0-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Indonesia's Java and Bali islands on 11 Oct 2018, killing 3 people. The victims were crushed by collapsed buildings in East Java's Sumenep district as the earthquake happened early Thursday when they were sleeping and the quake suddenly rocked so they didn't have time to evacuate.


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Singapore population growth slow down

Lowest Birth Rate in 2017 since 2014.
How would this affect economic growth?
Why is there a concern for low birth rate?
What has been done to increase the birth rate?

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The power of Hurricane Florence via technology

Look at how Hurricane Florence will impact on coastal areas.

When will Hurricane Florence hit the coast?
Who will be affected?
Where will the storm surge affect?
What are the impacts of a storm surge?
Why does hurricane results in storm surge?
How can the impacts be mitigated?

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Super Typhoon Mangkhut

Forecast path of Super Typhoon Mangkhut as it approaches Hong Kong. 

(Graphic: AFP/Gal Roma)

How are typhoons formed?
Where are the areas affected by Typhoon Mangkhut?
When were the typhoon expected to hit the Philippines and Hong Kong?
Who are affected by the typhoon?
What are the impacts of the typhoon?
Why is it important to forecast the typhoon track?


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Rice cultivation and climate change

Other than methane, rice cultivation contributes to the emission of  nitrous oxide, another greenhouse gas.
Since rice is a major staple for at least half the world's seven billion people, the way it is managed has significant effects on the Earth's warming climate, said the report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a peer-reviewed US journal.

Currently, the amount of unaccounted-for N2O global emissions from rice may be as high as the annual climate pollution from about 200 coal power plants, according to the authors. In India alone, where the study took place across five intermittently flooded rice fields, nitrous oxide emissions "could be 30-45 times higher than reported under continuous flooding," researchers estimated.

Rice cultivation affects climate change and climate change affects rice cultivation. 

Look at how climate change affects production of rice.

Can Green Revolution in creating super rice helped food security threatened by climate change?

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Surviving the 2018 Lombok earthquake

Read about how a Geography teacher survived an earthquake.

Where did Mdm Lim experience the earthquake?
When did the earthquake struck?
Who was affected?
What was the damage caused by the earthquake?
Why did she mentioned earthquake monitoring and preparedness are important?
How did she kept herself safe from the earthquake?

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