Johor new tourist destinations.

Look at how Johor is developing its tourist industry. Other than the newly opened Legoland and the imminent Hello Kitty Theme park, plan is undergoing in the building of an integrated resort at Desaru in Johor with 2 theme parks and 2 golf course.
Accessibility - proximity to Singapaore and Senai airport 45 mins away will attract more local and regional visitors which at is presently at 10 million in 2012.The project is expected to create 3500 jobs.

Refer to the map above - other than the newly opened legoland and Hello Kitty theme park, name some of the tourist attractions found in Johor.
Why do you think the east coast of Johor offers more water sports related activities?

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Thai rice pile

What does the article shows about the role of government in food production?
What is the main problem faced by the farmers that is mentioned in this article?
Does increased food production help to feed more people?

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Vertical farm

Why is there a need for high-tech farming in Singapore?

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Blue revolution

Why is there a need for aquaculture? Look at this video clip on overfishing. It also look into one of the problems of fish farming - using low value fish to produce high value fish.
Ending Overfishing from OCEAN2012 on Vimeo.

Look at how aquaculture help India increase food production, income, rural development and quality of life:

Aquaculture from Hypnautyx Entertainment (P) Ltd. on Vimeo.

Find out how aquaculture can increase food production in Europe as well as some problems faced:

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Singapore Population 2012

Singapore’s total population reached 5.31 million 2012 and the number of Singapore citizens grew by close to 28,000 to 3.29 million over the one-year period. That of permanent residents (PRs) was up by a little over 1,000 to 533,100 over the period.  

Watch the animation below to find out more about what might happen if our birth rate decline as well as if it increase too fast.

Our Singapore Story from Lucian Teo on Vimeo.
Some of the highlights from the annual Population Trends publication by the Singapore Department of Statistics:

  • Reflecting the ageing population, the report said the median age of the resident population went up further to 38.4 years in 2012, compared to 38.0 in 2011 and 37.4 in 2010.
  • The proportion of Singapore residents aged 65 years and above rose to 9.9 per cent from 9.3 per cent last year.This resulted in the ratio of residents aged 20-64 years to elderly residents aged 65 years and above trending downwards. The report said there were 6.7 residents aged 20-64 years to each elderly resident, compared to 7.2 last year.
  • Female residents outnumbered their male counterparts in Singapore. The sex ratio was 970 males per 1,000 females, down from 972 in 2011.
  • Turning to marriages, the report said a total of 27,258 marriages were registered in 2011, which was 12 per cent higher than the 24,363 registered in 2010. This was a rebound after a dip in 2010.
  • As for the fertility rate in Singapore, DOS said total live-births rebounded and increased by 4.4 per cent to 39,654 last year, from 37,967 in 2010.
  • Singapore's resident total fertility rate rose slightly from 1.15 in 2010 to 1.2 in 2011. 
  • There is an increase in the proportion with no children among married women in their thirties.
  • The proportion who was childless grew from 15 per cent in 2001 to 21 per cent last year among married resident women aged 30-39 years.
  • The share of university graduates also increased significantly from 14 per cent in 2001 to 25 per cent in 2011.

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Why and how Malaysia encourage Tourism

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Impacts of tourism

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Haze in Singapore

The PSI is as high as 79 this morning - the sky is so hazy that people with heart or lung disease as well as children and older adults aged 65 and above are advised  to avoid all physical activity outdoors.
The haze is caused by the fires builds up during the dry season when farmers clear their land by burning.  The fires are mostly concentrated in the provinces of Jambi and South Sumatra in Indonesia.   The haze has been affecting tourism and contributing to health problems across the region.
Indonesia's government has outlawed land-clearing by fire but weak law enforcement means the ban is largely ignored.

For Sec 2 students - think about the following:
1. Why do farmers clear their land by burning? You have studied this under the topic shifting cultivation.
2. How does the haze affect tourism?

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Parivartan Slum Networking Programme in Ahmedabad,India

Watch this video on how strategies taken to reduce the problem of poor access to clean water and sanitation facilities. 
In the city of Ahmedabad, more than 20% of the population comprising of 1,76,754 families lived in 710 slums under sub-human conditions. Most of this population lived in conditions that didn’t have critical infrastructure. The Slum Networking approach (SNP) called Parivartan adapted by AMC (Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation), though based on the slum networking approach of the DFID-funded Indore Habitat Improvement Project (IHIP), is substantially different in its settlement level approach and to partnerships with NGOs and communities. SNP in Ahmedabad has been designed to provide a package of infrastructure services in consultation with communities/ CBOs (community based organisations), NGO (Non-government organisations)   and the private sector. From its inception, SNP was designed to ensure that NGO partners directly provided or enabled access of communities to health and education services.

Situation before the programme
-  Total or partial absence of critical infrastructure like water supply, drainage, roads, toilets 
    and street lighting.
-    Over populated and congested.
-   Temporary structures with inadequate maintenance.
-    Lack of basic minimum education and insufficient skills.
-    Low income and poor standard of living.

Aims of the programme
-    Water supply to individual households.
-    Underground sewerage connection to individual households.
-    Toilets to individual households.
-    Paving of internal roads; lanes and by lanes in the slum localities.
-    Storm water drainage.
-    Street lighting.
-    Solid waste management

-   Benefited 56,000 people in >40 slums
-   Expanded to include 59 more slums
-   Death rates declined from 6.9 per 1,000 people to 3.7 per 1,000 people
-   Surfaced road and better drainage facilities means less stagnant water, and thus less possibility of spread of disease and fewer people falling ill. 
-    Increased standard of living e.g. each household has their own toilet
-    With provision of basic amenities such as water, drainage etc, people upgrade their own shelter
-     Expenditure on health decrease and more can be spend on education.
-     With electricity supply, students can study better
-     With water provision, the woman now have more time to work to increase income.
-     Higher quality of life and standard of life

-   No targets / milestones were set to monitor the performance of the implementing agency
-  The slums were not developed on priority basis,
-  The slum networking basically deals with notified slum and not with the other poor
settlements, and because of lack of funds the project could only be carried out in phases.
-  While it benefited some slums, majority are still deprived of clean water and sanitation
-   Problem of sourcing for funds to extend project to more areas
-   Problem of getting the technology and expertise needed
-   Difficulty in changing traditional habits

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Singapore's declining birth rate

What is the trend of birth rate in Singapore?
What is the trend of marriage rate in Singapore?
What is the relationship between birth rate and marriage as shown in the graph?
What are the other factors which could have account for the trend in birth rate as shown by the graph?

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Volcano and Earthquake maker

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Deforestation in Kalimatan

Illegal logging in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Illegal Logging in Indonesia by Faith Doherty, Environmental Investigation Agency 

The Forbidden forests of the Dayak, Borneo, Indonesia Setulang River - Indonesia:

Pulp and paper industry menace in South Kalimantan

Samboja Lestari 
1.04556°S 116.9875°E 

 IRREPARABLE HARM: Indonesia's Palm Oil Industry Expansion

Palm Oil - An Environmental Cost to Borneo - 30 Dec 07

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Map zone

Click on the link below to mapzone -The Homework Help section includes interactive tutorials and quizzes for students to independently learn about map-reading skills. Includes skills such as reading bearings, grid-references and compass-directions. The resource was produced by the Great Britain National Mapping Agency, Ordnance Survey.  

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Food Security

This film is about the hunger and poverty brought about by Globalization. There are 10,000 people dying everyday due to hunger and malnutrition. This short film shows a forgotten portion of the society. The people who live on the refuse of men to survive. What is inspiring is the hope and spirituality that never left this people. Time to think about the 3A - Affordability, Accessibility and Availability of Food

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Population and development

What will happen when world population size reach 7 billion?
How can we sustain development?

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GM food

 The story in the film "GM food and you" is a journey through the maze of complexities surrounding genetic modification. New technologies have a great influence on our daily lives and GM food is no exception. After all, plants provide us with the food we need to survive. However, GM food is a controversial area where both the basic research and its application to our daily lives is viewed with suspicion by members of the public. Legitimate concerns have been raised. Is GM food safe to eat? What are the impacts on our environment? Do we need it? Is all the truth told about GM crops? What about our right to choose? Can GM crops help the third world?

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Kecamatan Development Program Helping Indonesia

  • How did the World Bank help?
  • Besides the World Bank, which other organizations helped to support the programme financially?
  • What are the objectives of the KDP?
  • How has the KDP benefited villagers? 
  • Can this work project work elsewhere?

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    Maps on Geography of Food

    Many of you have problems analysing maps showing data such as that for Geography of food. You may want to look at this website for some good pointers on how to interpret those data.

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    Weather woes- Heavy rain in Kyushu Japan

    What cause the flood?
    When did this occur?
    Where are the areas affected?
    Who are the ones affected most?
    Why are floods a hazard?
    How can flood be mitigated?
    The impact of heavy rain in Kyushu, Japan:
    About 400,000 people were ordered or advised to leave their homes in southwest Japan  Sat 14 July as heavy rain pounded the area for a third day leaving 29 dead or missing.
    In Fukuoka prefecture alone, 78,600 people were ordered to evacuate their homes as rivers overflowed in dozens of places and 181 landslides occurred. About 820 houses were damaged and three bridges washed away.

    What brings about the heavy rain as shown on the map?
    Why does typhoon frequently hit Japan as shown on the map?

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    Singapore to raise reclaimed land level

    What would happen to our coastal land  as sea level around Singapore is predicted to rise between 24 and 65 centimetres by 2100?

    How can we battle against climate change?

    About 70 per cent of the coast line is already protected by hard structures like sea walls or stone embankments, which help protect against coastal erosion. Do you think they will be effective in protecting the coast in the long term?

    "Geo bags"  had been added to one eroded stretch of the beach, near the Road Safety Park. Geo bags are a type of sandbag made of a special sticky material that sand can adhere to. Apart from successfully building up beach two years on since 2010, the sandy surface of the bags also help them blend naturally into the beach front. How effectively do you think this will be against coastal erosion?

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    China one-child policy

    Do you think China's one-child policy is effective in controlling the population?
    What are the problems which China is facing due to the introduction of one-child policy?
    What are the exceptions to the one-child policy as mentioned by the news article?

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    Singapore birth rate 3rd lowest in 5 East Asia nations

    Though the figures from the National Population and Talent Division revealed figures that Singapore's total fertility rate had increased to 1.2 last year from 2010's record low of 1.5, our fertility rate is low behind the replacement level.

    The 5 countries shown above are facing the same challenge of low fertility rates. Later marriages, rising single-hood and fewer children are some of the major reasons for the low fertility rates. These could be due to higher level of education attainment and better employment opportunities.

    Among the 5 nations, Japan's fertility rate has rose to 1.32 in 2006 and continued to rise. This could be due to Japan's social support system makes it less of a struggle for parents to raise children. Japan also has a national pension system "which takes care of long term social security". To encourage Singaporeans to marry earlier and procreate, housing could be cheaper, education less expensive and stressful and childcare options more affordable.

    As mentioned by Deputy Prime Minister and Minster for Home Affairs Teo Chee Hean yesterday that creating a supportive envrionment for Singaporeans to form families and raise children has been, and remains, a key government priority in addressing the population challenge.

    extracted from

    Do you have any suggestions of ways to increase our fertility rate?

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    Garden by the bay - a new tourist attraction?

     Do you think this will be a new tourist attraction?

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    Field Inquiry on Tourism

    The first field inquiry on human geography which we have learned to be more open minded. We have also learned from each other the need to check whether the data collected is skewed.  We did a land use transact and learned to see the pattern e.g goods are sold mainly on the 1st level and services on the 2nd level, higher order goods such as electronics and jewllery shops are found along Pagoda street, Temple street and Trengganu Street which catered more to the tourists as compared to Sago street where there are. more pastry shops as it is nearer to the Kretar Ayer CC where more locals actually shop.  . However there is pastry shop along Sago. For almost all the tourists whom we interviewed, most are attracted by shopping as well as the temples nearby.

    As Geographers, we need to look at the spatial distribution of the land use.  There is also a need to see the spatial patterns for Human Geography during post fieldtrip when collecting data.

    Interesting findings of the different streets. Smith Street - food vendors of local delicacies but more expensive - a deliberate planning by STB to introduce the local food of the 60s. However almost all the stalls are not opened in the morning. It would be more appropriate to do the survey for this stretch of road in the evening. There are also more restaurants that are cosmopolitan e.g. Thai etc. there. We found out that many tourists would actually go for food that they are more familiar with as compared to trying the local food. There are a lot of accommodation such as hostel and budget hotels along Mosque street -most tourist book online and stayed there as it is relatively cheap. Here we could look at how amenities affect tourism. Most of them stayed there due to the availability of public transport such as MRT and public buses nearby. They have booked the stay online and most would have sourced the accommodation and nearby attractions on the internet. Thus we could also see how accessibility in terms of transport and information can attract tourists.

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    Field inquiry on coastal studies

    Our first activity at the East coast park was to label the low water mark, the high water mark, the shoreline and the coastline.

    We then proceeded to our assigned area, cell G. The breakers here are higher and nearer to each other. We observed the symmetrical shape of the coastline so we came up with the hypothesis that the beach gradient should also be the same on both sides behind the breakers. However, after measuring the gradient, we realised that the gradient is steepest at the one on the West compared to the one facing the East. We suspected that the more gentle slope could be a results of the longshore drift. We threw an apple into the sea and the swash brought the apple up the shore and the backwash brought it back to the sea causing the apple to move from west to east. However, it took a long time for the apple to move eastwards. We also timed the no. of waves per min  - 20 per min which showed that the waves are strong and destructive. Thus the breakwater was quite effective - the coast which is actually reclaimed land would have given way to erosion if the coastal protection was not introduced. 


    Using the downloaded application clinometer, we measured the gradient at every 1m interval from the high water mark with the tablet. Amazing what technology can do as in the past we have to carry the ranging poles and the clinometer to measure the beach gradient in order to plot the beach profile. When I downloaded the free app clinometer and smart compass from the Android Market , I also saw the 3D earthquake app which was so amazing - the next good app after google map!

    The sketch which I did at the area we were assigned.


     The East Coast Park is bustling with activities and can be very crowded during the weekends. Luckily we are there on a weekday. We show people camping, jogging, cycling and a group of students who are ready to start their BBQ. We did interviews with the people and learned quite a bit.

    This was our findings which we presented at the post fieldwork session.

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    Field inquiry on Weather Studies

    We started off the activity with "human thermometer" for the five different sites.
    Rating based on our senses without the instruments

    Measuring of humidity is tedious with the sling psychrometer as we have to swing the instrument with 2 swings per sec which is like 120 round per min!

    Sling Psychrometer - to measure humidity

    Using the weather tracker, we compared the readings and tested our hypothesis on how the temperature was affected by the amount of shade and concrete surface area. Some areas are more exposed and floored with cement such as the parade square which resulted in the highest temperature recorded. In the areas which are more shaded and with soil such as the garden recorded the lowest temperatures.

    I prefer to use this weather tracker which shows the humidity, temperature and wind speed - less tedious.

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    Singapore ranks 4th most popular destination by air

    Why do you think Singapore is able to achieve such a high ranking?
    Why do you think development of tourism in Singapore is so important?
    Why do you think the largest number of tourists to Singapore is from Jakarta?
    Why do you think the tourists from London spend the most amount of money in Singapore?
    What are the factors which have encouraged the growth of tourism globally?

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    World Population

    Population Growth
    Log onto  and see how fast the counter moves. 
    How long do you think it will take world population to reach 10 billion (10 000 000 000)?
    Look at the net population growth (births minus deaths) and do your maths!

    Refer to the population of the different countries in 2011 - China top the list followed by India.  However if you look at the land area compared with the population - which country has the highest population density? 
    Population Density = Population divided by the land area

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    Earthquake hits Italy

    An earthquake in northern Italy has killed at least seven people and caused serious damage to buildings in several towns on 20 May 2012.  The magnitude-6.0 quake struck in the middle of the night, about 35km (22 miles) north of the city of Bologna. The tremor caused "significant damage to the cultural heritage" of Emilia Romagna region.
    What caused earthquakes?
    Why are some earthquakes more damaging?
    Just look at this earthquake which occur recently and find out how the people are affected.

    At least 17 people perished in a strong earthquake that struck in northern Italy near where a more powerful seismic jolt had killed seven others on May 20.
    Which are the cities affected by the earthquake?

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    Veggie Pipe

    Maximizing food production in land scarce Singapore. Singaporeans now have more ways to grow their own vegetables. The Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority on Thursday introduced a new vegetable home growing idea - known as the "Veggie Pipe". Some of the vegetables which can be grown include mint, basil and Chinese cabbages. All that is needed are some water pipes, soil and seedlings. An irrigation system can also be installed in the pipe.

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    Indonesia quake 11 Apr 2012

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    World's 10 richest countries

    Read the article on the Richest countries in the world and answer the following:
    What is GDP per capita?
    How is it different from GDP (Gross Domestic Product)?
    Does GDP per capita reflect income level?
    Is GDP per capita a good indicator of development?
    What helped the countries to attain a high income?

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    India's malnutrition crisis

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    Earthquake in Philippines

    Map of the Philippines locating the epicentre of a 6.8-magnitude quake. The 6.8-magnitude quake hit a narrow strait between the heavily populated islands of Negros and Cebu around lunchtime on 6 Feb 2012 with more than 200 aftershocks, some nearly as strong, causing further panic throughout the day.

    Rescuers in the Philippines dug through rubble with shovels and their bare hands on 7 Feb after a powerful earthquake triggered landslides, collapsed homes and killed dozens of people.

    The Philippines sits on the Pacific "Ring of Fire" -- a belt around the Pacific Ocean where friction between shifting tectonic plates causes frequent earthquakes and volcanic activity.

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