Climate Change in Palau

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Political unrest affecting tourism in HK

How does political unrest affect tourism?
Where did this occur?
When did this happen?
Who are the ones affected?
What other factors affect tourism?
Why is there a concern on the impact of political unrest on HK tourism?

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Medical tourism in SE Asia

Growth of Medical tourism in SEASia mainly attributed to:
  • Rising income levels 
  • Greater awareness of health issues
  • An increase in non-communicable diseases (NCDs) 
  • Cheaper travel and accommodation 
  • Quality medical tourism with Southeast Asian healthcare facilities regularly featured in the annual list of the world’s best hospitals for medical tourists by the Medical Travel Quality Alliance (MTQUA)

Medical tourism in Malaysia is growing with approximately 1.2 million people visited the country to seek medical treatment in 2018.

Penang is the top medical tourism destination in Malaysia, generatinv 40 to 50 per cent of the country's medical tourism income and this has numerous multiplier effects on the local economy.


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Monsoon woes

Flooding in India on the onset of the SW Monsoon  killed dozens and displaced thousands at the start of July 2019.

Look at how the flood as a results of the monsoon killed 324 and displaced more than 200,000 in Aug last year (2018)

India experiencing SW Monsoon in July which brings heavy rain as the onshore wind crosses the Indian ocean.

The NE Monsoon is an offshore wind and bring little or no rain to India.

Animated illustration of the monsoons from

The flooding caused by the monsoon has led to widespread damage and deaths in India.
The southern state of Kerala, a tourist haven known for its beaches, hill resorts and backwaters, has been the worst hit region for the second consecutive year, forcing the closure of the Kochi international airport for three days last week.At least 76 people have died, 58 are missing and another 32 have received injuries in Kerala.
Around 288,000 people across the state's worst affected districts including Wayanad, Malappuram and Kozhikode have been moved to relief camps.At least 42 people have also lost their lives and 580,000 people evacuated in neighbouring Karnataka state.
There were 66 deaths in the western states of Maharashtra and Gujarat, with tens of thousands of people shifted to relief camps.


Updated 12 Aug 2019

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Climate change affecting Singapore

How does climate change affects Singapore?

In recent years, days when maximum temperatures exceed 34 deg C and nights when minimum temperatures exceed 26 deg C have been more frequent in Singapore. It is also projected that average temperature in Singapore  will increase between 1.4 deg C and 4.6 deg C, as well as more frequent warmer days and nights by 2100.

These temperature changes are due to larger-scale greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and Singapore's urbanisation. Replacing Singapore's natural forests and mangroves with buildings and other infrastructure results in built-up surfaces  producing more heat. At night, the difference between downtown Singapore and forests in Lim Chu Kang can exceed 7 deg C.

One of most severe impacts of climate change in Singapore will be the increase in sea level. The average sea level around Singapore's coasts has risen steadily at a rate of between 1.2mm and 1.7mm per year, and is projected to increase to about 1m by 2100.

Click the link below to see the simulation of how rising sea level will affect Singapore:

Singapore carbon tax of $5 per tonne of GHG emissions implemented this year will encourage more efficient use of non-renewable energy. The carbon tax revenues will also be used for renewable energy innovations and transformation of emission-intensive local industries.

Other than the above read the article below on other ways we can mitigate the impacts of climate change in Singapore.

New update 25 Aug

Possible approaches dealing with sea level rise:

  1. Flood-proofing existing buildings and infrastructure, or designating areas that would be allowed to flood during high tide.
  2. Removal and reallocation of key infrastructure and assets to areas that the sea cannot inundate.
  3. Planting and managing mangrove coasts, or engineered options like sea walls, land reclamation and polders.


Prime Minister Lee on climate change

How the Dutch use the polders to protect the coastal land.

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Earthquake resistant buildings

Preparedness measure

How does preparedness measures such as building earthquake resistant buildings help to mitigate the impacts of earthquake?

What are the limitations of preparedness measures?

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Heat wave in Europe

Impacts from global warming.

Heatwave with temperatures above 40°C accompanied by drought in some areas, especially in Eastern Europe, whilst frequent thunderstorms with locally large hail are expected in Eastern Central and South-Eastern Europe. There are also risks of heat stress for vulnerable people and of wildfires.

What are the impacts of extreme weather?
How can the impacts be mitigated?

Temperatures may rise to 45°C in France.
In 2003 temperatures rose to 44.1°C and 15000 died due to the heatwave.

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Sichuan Earthquake 18 June 2019

An earthquake struck Sichuan China which caused 12 deaths and 134 injured.

Read the article and reflect on the following:
When did the earthquake occur?
Where are the areas most affected by the earthquake
Why is Sichuan prone to earthquakes?
What are the damages caused by the earthquake?
What are the short term responses carried out?
How how early warning can help to mitigate the impact of earthquake?

An early warning alarm system was triggered in the provincial capital Chengdu about one minute before the earthquake struck. The alert rang 10 seconds before it hit Yibin. A three-second headstart before an tremor hits can prevent 14 per cent of casualties.


Refer to the following earthquakes which struck Sichuan in the past:
Early warning system

Compare this with the 8.0 magnitude earthquake in Sichuan which killed more than 80000 people  with 5 milion people homeless in 2008. Lack of early warning has contributed to the high casualty rate.

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Tropical cyclone Fani

Tropical cyclone Fani, with a windspeed of over 200km/hr, will be one of strongest affecting the Bay of Bengal area since Tropical cyclone Nargis in 2008.

Refer to the following article on Tropical Cyclone Fani.“fani”

Where are the areas affected by the tropical cyclones?
When did the tropical cyclone affect the areas?
What are the impacts brought by the tropical cyclones?
How can the impacts from the tropical cyclone be mitigated?

The path of the tropical cyclone

Preparedness measures

Impacts of the tropical cyclone Fani in India

Tropical Cyclone FANI struck north-eastern India and western Bangladesh from 3rd to 5th May.

As of 6 May at least 42 people have been reported dead in Odisha (India) and another 17 in Bangladesh. Odisha state has been the most seriously affected with massive destruction to its electricity suppky and infrastructure.

 In Bangladesh, 13 000 houses have been damaged across the country and national humanitarian aid is assisting affected families.

The early evacuation of 1 million people in India and 1.6 million in Bangladesh prevented a higher number of fatalities, considering the Cyclone's severity.


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Food production and consumption

Read the article below to see how technology, government policy and climate change have affected food production in Myanmar.

Globalisation which promote accessibility to fast food affecting food consumption and negative impacts which arise from it.

Who are affected by the decrease in food production?
Why is there a decrease in food production?
What are the impacts of a decrease in food production?
How can the impacts be mitigated?

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Political situation affecting Sri Lanka tourism

Sri Lanka’s $4.4 billion tourism industry is adversely affected by the multiple suicide bombings that killed over 250 people two weeks ago. Tourism, which accounts for 5 percent of the country’s gross domestic product, has suffered as tourists from around the world cancelled hotel and flight bookings fearing more attacks.

Why does the political situation in Sri Lanka affect tourism?

How can this affect the economy and people in Sri Lanka?

What other events can hinder the growth of tourism?

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Ebola outbreak in DR Congo

More than 1,000 people have now died of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Challenges faced by the humanitarian groups in fighting the outbreak are the political situation and the resistance within communities to preventative measures, care facilities and safe burials. The long-standing presence of various rebel groups in Ituri and North Kivu has made it difficult for health workers to access tho 12000 people who might have come into contact with Ebola.

Tens of thousands of people were uprooted by the resurgence of violence in the east of the country. Among them, some 7,000 displaced people are housed in a primary school where the only water source is a nearby river and there are not enough toilets. Thus the risk of disease spread is high.

In the conflict-ridden country as a whole, more than 13 million people need humanitarian aid. More than five million have had to flee their homes, and Uganda is already home to more than 1.2 million refugees.


Why does political situations affect the spread of disease?
What are the other factors affecting spread of disease?
How does international organisations help in mitigating the impacts of the spread of disease?
Where are the areas prone to the spread of disease?

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Expansion to integrated resort

The $9 billion investment include a new entertainment arena and hotel tower at Marina Bay Sands (MBS), while Resorts World Sentosa (RWS) will extend Universal Studios Singapore to include two new attractions - Minion Park and Super Nintendo World. 

Currently, the integrated resorts together directly employ close to 20,000 people - more than 65 per cent of whom are locals, and also support another 40,000 jobs. The expansion will create 5000 more jobs in which two third will be taken up by locals.

How will the investment in destination encourage growth of tourism?
Why is there a need to expand the integrated resorts?
What are the positive impacts of tourism?

4 April 2019

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Ensuring food security

Watch the video below on the role of Government ensuring food security in Singapore:
What is food security?
Why is there a need for strategies to ensure food security?
How can the three strategies mentioned in the video be introduced?

Are we able to produce 30% of our nutritional need by 2030?

Assistance from Government 
  • high-tech controlled environments
  • automate and integrate systems via robotics and sensors. 
  • Indoor multi-storey vegetable farms that use light-emitting-diode technology and recirculating aquaculture systems
  • Singapore Food Agency (SFA) offering technical support, research-and-development tie-ups and the transfer of technology to farmer e.g advanced systems such as curtain systems that shade crops and reduce the impact of high temperatures on crop growth.  

  • Underused and alternative spaces such as vacant state buildings, rooftops and even the deep sea. 
  • Deep-sea fish farming e.g. Barramundi Asia — Singapore’s largest farm rearing barramundi (Asian sea bass) in large sea-cage enclosures off Semakau island.  
  •  develop courses, such as SkillsFuture Earn and Learn Programmes, that lead to diplomas in urban agricultural technology and aquaculture.
  • initiatives to promote homegrown produce e.g.SG Farmers’ Markets in the heartlands and supermarkets to hold fairs featuring home grown produce.


Protecting our indigenous farmers.

Watch the video @

What is GM food?
How can GM food such as the GM sea bass help in food security?

Watch the following on land grabbing. Is leasing land to grow crops in developing countries a solution to overcome food shortage?

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Living with natural disasters

Why is it difficult for LDC, such as Indonesia, to respond to natural disasters such as the recent earthquakes at Lombok as well the eruption of Anak Krakatoa which triggered a tsunamis?
What can be done to mitigate the impacts of earthquakes and tsunamis?
Where are the areas prone to the risks of earthquakes?

Watch this video @

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Extreme weather Jan 2019

Have you been feeling the heat lately?
Is the extreme heat a results of climate change?
Why is high temperatures with high humidity deadly?

Look at the heatwave in Australia with temperature as high as 48.9 degree celsius!

On the other hand, Europe experience extremely cold weather.
School closed, traffic and communication disrupted. Avalanche, accidents on road etc leading to deaths.

Where are the places affected by the extreme weather?
When was the extreme weather experienced?
Who are affected by the extreme weather?
What are the impacts of the extreme weather?
Why does temperature differ at different parts of the world?
How can the impacts of climate change be mitigated?

Look at last year's record in Singpore (2018)

On 30 Jan 2018 , intense thunderstorms brought rain On 31 Jan 2018, strong wind gusts from a waterspout off Singapore's east coast sent small boats and other objects flying.
 On March 30, strong winds from an intense thunderstorm uprooted trees and caused substantial damage to farms in the Lim Chu Kang area. And a wind gust measuring 133.3kmh recorded at nearby Tengah that day was the strongest in eight years.

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Urban agriculture in Singapore

Urban agriculture improves food security for land-scarce countries like Singapore. It is also water and energy saving and help to reduce carbon footprints through encouraging the consumption of local produce.

What is food security?
Why is it important to ensure food security?
How does the government ensure food security?

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