Earthquakes and tsunamis 120 years

 A good animation showing the earthquakes and tsunamis from 1901 to 2020.

The earthquake hypocenters (Focus) first appear as flashes then remain as colored circles before shrinking with time so as not to obscure subsequent earthquakes. The size of each circle represents the earthquake's magnitude while the color represents its depth within the earth. This animation also highlights significant tsunamis generated by some of these earthquakes. 

8.8 – Ecuador-Columbia – 31 January 1906 

8.5 – Atacama, Chile 11 November 1922 

8.4 – Kamchatka, Russia – 3 February 1923 

8.4 – Sanriku, Japan - 2 March 1933 

8.6 – Unimak Island, Aleutian Islands 1 April 1946*

9.0 – Kamchatka, Russia 4 November 1952 

8.6 – Andreanof Islands, Aleutian Islands 9 March 1957

9.5 – Valdivia, Chile – 22 May 1960* 

9.2 - Prince William Sound, Alaska – 28 March 1964*

 8.7 – Rat Islands, Aleutian Islands – 4 February 1965 

7.7 – Kalapana, Hawaii 29 November 1975* 

8.4 – Southern Peru 23 June 2001

9.1 – Sumatra, Indonesia – 26 December 2004* 

8.1 – Samoan Islands – 29 September 2009* 

8.8 – Maule, Chile – 27 February 2010* 

9.0 – Tohoku, Japan – 11 March 2011*

7.9 – Haida Gwaii, Canada 28 October 2012

Majority of all earthquakes occur at plate boundaries and tsunami-causing earthquakes mostly occur at convergent plate boundaries where the subduction zones are.

Note most of the earthquake are shallow. Why does earthquake with shallow focus have higher intensity?

Where are the areas prone to earthquakes?

How are subduction zones formed?

What caused earthquakes to form at plate boundaries?

Why are earthquake and tsunamis hazardous?

How can the damage from earthquakes and tsunamis be mitigated?


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Stunting in Indonesia

 Watch the video below on how poor nutrition results in stunting in Indonesia.

What cause stunting in children?

Realising its negative impact on the country’s economic growth, the Indonesian government has set a goal to reduce the stunting rate to 14 per cent by 2024. 

How does high rate of stunting affect the economy?

Diarrhea is the leading cause of child mortality in the country.

Why does diarrhea lead to high child mortality?

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Tibet Super Dam

A new dam is planned along the Yarlung Zangbo river in Tibet, China.

Who will be affected by the construction of the dam?

Where will the dam be constructed?

Why is there a concern on the building of dams along the river?

 What are the benefits and problems brought by the construction of the dam?

How can this lead to conflict between China and India?

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Food Security in Singapore

In land scarce Singapore, vertical farming is one way to achieve food security. Read more on the update.

How does vertical farming help to achieve food security?

Why is there a need to achieve 30% self sufficiency by 2030?

What other strategies can help Singapore achieve 30by30?

More urban farms at HDB carpark roof top

Sustainability in food production

Ensuring food security in Singapore

Meeting Singapore 30 by 30  food goal

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Climate Change threatening Singapore

TV commercial by PUB

Extreme weather due to climate change threatening Singapore

What contribute to climate change?
Why is climate change a threat to Singapore?
How can we play a part in mitigating climate change?

A good Google Earth app to show how climate change can impact on coastal cities other than Singapore.

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Mt Sinabung erupted 2 March 2021

 Watch the eruption time lapse from BBC below.

What cause volcanic eruptions?
Why do people live near volcanic areas?
How can the impacts be mitigated?

The 2014 eruption in Feb resulted in 16 deaths and thousands displaced.

Refer to the map below.

How is the Sumatra Trench formed?
Bukit Barisan is a fold mountain. 
What cause fold mountains to be formed?
Why are there so many volcanoes on Sumatra??

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Deaths from COVID-19 in US

A powerful graphic by the New York Times on the deaths as a results of the COVID-19 Pandemic in the US. Every dot represents a life lost and almost half a million lives have been lost from 24 April 2020 to 20 Feb 2021. The greater intensity as shown by number of dots (loss of lives) is in Jan 2021.

What is a pandemic?
When did the pandemic spread to US?
Why did the pandemic spread so quickly?
Who are the ones most affected by the pandemic?
What are the social and economic impacts of the pandemic? 
How effectives are the measures taken to deal with the pandemics?

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Singapore Green Plan 2030

The Singapore Green Plan 2030 seeks to rally collective action to tackle climate change, and to make Singapore a greener and more liveable home. The Singapore Green Plan 2030 contains targets that will strengthen Singapore’s commitment to the United Nation’s 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda and Paris Agreement as well as help achieve Singapore's long-term, net-zero emissions goal!

Click on the images below for higher resolution

The Green Plan has five key pillars:

a) City in Nature: to create a green, liveable and sustainable home for Singaporeans;

b) Sustainable Living: to make reducing carbon emissions, keeping our environment clean, and saving resources and energy a way of life in Singapore;

c) Energy Reset: to use cleaner energy and increase our energy efficiency to lower our carbon footprint;

d) Green Economy: to seek green growth opportunities to create new jobs, transform our industries, and harness sustainability as a competitive advantage; and

e) Resilient Future: to build up Singapore’s climate resilience and enhance our food security


Why is there a need for the Singapore Green Plan?

What are the main measures in the Singapore Green Plan 2030?

How does the Green Plan help in sustainable development?

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Mt Merapi erupts

 Mt Merapi erupted on 27 Jan 2021. Watch the video to understand the formation and hazards of the volcano. 

Where is Mt Merapi located?
When was the volcano Mt Merapi formed?
How was Mt Merapi formed?
What is released during the volcanic eruption?
Why is the eruption explosive and hazardous?

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Conservation vs Development

Should the Dover forest be cleared for housing development or be conserved? 
Where is the Dover forest located? 
When did the secondary forest start growing?
Who are the one against clearing the forest for housing development? 
Why are they against clearing the forest? 
How will the removal of the forest for housing development affect the environment?

Visit the link below to find out more:

More on the plan for Dover forest..
Human centred or nature centred views

A good article showing before and after images of  forest and mangroves which has been cleared for development in Singapore.

The Dover Forest which was in the spotlight as the Nature Society of Singapore appealed for it to be conserve as there is plan to clear it for housing development.

Dover Forest 

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Sulawesi earthquake

The epicenter of the 6.2-magnitudeearthquake, which struck at 1:28 am Jakarta time, was six kilometers (3.7 miles) northeast of the city of Majene, at a depth of 10 kilometers (6.2 miles), according to Indonesia's Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency.

Reflect on how the magnitude of earthquake, depth of focus, time of occurrence and population density affect the extent of damage.

As on 16 Jan 2021, 67 were killed as the earthquake resulted in the collapse of buildings and landslides. Many are still trapped in the rubble of collapsed buildings. Search and rescue, a short term response, is being carried out to save lives.

Aftershocks hamper rescue work.
What are aftershocks and how does it hamper search and rescue?

When did the earthquake occur?
What is the magnitude of the earthquake?
Why does the earthquake cause more damage on Sulawesi?
Indonesia is located along the Ring of Fire.
Where is the Ring of Fire?
Why are places located along the Ring of Fire prone to earthquakes?
How can the impact of the earthquake be mitigated?

“One of our biggest fears is exactly what’s going on right now – what happens when there’s a major event during a pandemic? It’s a perfect storm,” said Jan Gelfand of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.

“If you have people who are evacuated, the risk [of infection] for those people goes up tremendously,” said Gelfand. “You don’t want to put people in more danger than they are already in.”

A 5.7 magnitude earthquake struck off the northeastern coast of Taiwan on 9 Jan at a depth of 72km, with no reports of damage. 

Why do you think the extent of damage is lower compared to the one which struck Sulawesi?

2018 Lombok earthquake

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